Capellan Confederation Armed Forces

Capellan Confederation logo.png

The Capellan Confederation Armed Forces (CCAF) is the military of the Capellan Confederation. It evolved from the Capellan Defense Force created by the first Capellan Chancellor Franco Liao. A professional and competent fighting force, the CCAF throughout most of its history has found itself on the defensive, forced to fight against nearly impossible odds whilst being hamstrung by its own government. Recently having undergone through a transformation, the CCAF is now the Inner Sphere's offensive military powerhouse. Which has made the Capellan Confederation one of the greatest threats to the Republic of the Sphere, perhaps to the entire Inner Sphere.[1]

Besides the regular and militia forces, the Capellan Confederation also maintains Warrior Houses, semireligious military orders, and the Death Commandos, an elite special forces group, which exist entirely separate from the CCAF and answer directly to the Chancellor to whom they swear personal loyalty. They are not covered in this article.



The Capellan Confederation Armed Forces.

Ostensibly, the High Command of the CCAF - the Strategios - is responsible for all strategic operational planning, both offensive and defensive, and the general day-to-day running of the military. Its membership includes the Chancellor in their capacity as Commander-in-Chief of the CCAF, various representatives of the Capellan government, the six Senior Colonels, and the Strategic Military Director. In truth, how well the Strategios operates in this capacity depends entirely on the goodwill of the Chancellor. Many times in Capellan history the Chancellor and other civilian officials have sidelined the Command Council and taken a personal role in running the military, down to micromanaging even the smallest units, with foreseeable results. When allowed to do its job with minimal oversight from the Chancellor though, the Strategios and the military as a whole operates in a streamlined, efficient manner.[2][3][4]

Strategic Military Director[edit]

Capellan Ti Ts'ang BattleMech.

In the absence of the Chancellor, the Strategic Military Director serves as the commander of the CCAF and regent of Sian, and has full authority over the Ministry of the Military. When the Chancellor is present, the SMD serves as their chief military adviser.[2][4] Given the power of the position, trust between the Chancellor and the SMD is important, as is steadfast loyalty. After the betrayal of Pavel Ridzik during the Fourth Succession War, it became official policy for the SMD to relinquish in perpetuity all Sheng titles and landholdings. Additionally, the Chancellor retains personal control over the Warrior Houses and Death Commandos, both as a check on the Director's powers and to carry out tasks which don't have their unwavering support.[3][4]

Senior Colonels/Jiang-Jun[edit]

After Jasmine Liao abolished the rank of General, the responsibilities of that title were given over to a new rank, Senior Colonel. There were six senior colonels, one for each of the founding commonalities of the Confederation (including Chesterton-in-Exile). Each senior colonel was responsible for all military planning, logistics and unit readiness within their assigned commonality. On the Command Council, the senior colonels answered to the Strategic Military Director.[2]

After Chancellor Sun-Tzu Liao came to power, he reinstated the rank of general or Jiang-jun. In place of six senior colonels are ten jian-jun, two each for the five existing commonalities; the commander of the CCAF navy is also part of this group, and considered to be equivalent to a jiang-jun. One is given responsibility for all line regiments assigned to their commonality, the other with all Home Guard and planetary militia.[5][6]

Ministry of the Military[edit]

Capellan 'Mechs and Power Armor

The Ministry of the Military is one of the most important bureaus in the Ministerial, responsible for all aspects of supporting the armed forces. When not being meddled with by the Chancellor or other officials, it typically operates in a highly efficient manner. It is composed of six departments, with each head answering to the Minister of the Military and the Strategios. After the ascension of Sun-Tzu Liao, the department heads of the Ministry were all given the rank of jiang-jun, making them equal in authority to those in the Strategios, both to force better cooperation and provide a break on any officer getting too ambitious.[5][6]

Administration and Finance[edit]

Responsible for all recordkeeping and payroll functions, including disability and death benefits, as well as maintaining promotion lists. Unfortunately, corruption and graft are widespread within this department, requiring a permanent team of Maskirovka auditors on the lookout for illegal activity.[2][6]

Acquisitions and Training[edit]

Responsible for the recruitment and training of new CCAF soldiers. Oversees all Duchy Regional Training Centers and other training academies within the Confederation, as well as many of the smaller boot camps and other training facilities located on every world. With the Strategios' approval, it also oversees the creation of new CCAF units.[2][6]

Capellan Medical Corps[edit]

Capellan 'Mechs.

Responsible for all health and medical care in the CCAF. Provides medics and corpsmen to line and Home Guard regiments, and maintains standing emergency medical battalions with their own transports, surgical and intensive-care facilities (ten battalions in 3025, increasing to fourteen by 3067). Notably, the CMC is not obligated to provide medical care to "enemies of the state" excepting prisoners (and only until they can be turned over to the proper authorities), leaving such decisions at the discretion of unit commanders.[2][6]

Capellan Confederation Navy[edit]

The Capellan Confederation Navy is responsible for the transportation of ground forces and their protection whilst in transit. Includes all WarShips (both before they became extinct and after their reintroduction in the Inner Sphere), JumpShips and DropShips. Aerospace fighters not integrated as part of a regiment or grouped together as aerospace regiments also fall under this department.[2][6]

Procurement Division[edit]

Responsible for all logistical concerns, including the purchase, transportation and storage of all equipment and munitions, for every unit (including the Warrior Houses and Death Commandos). Also oversees all civilian production of military equipment.[2][6]

Research and Development[edit]

Responsible for conducting all scientific research into martial technologies and testing of new equipment for quality control. Frequently partners with civilian research firms (often temporarily nationalized for security purposes). Notable success have included the Raven, Cataphract, Sha Yu and Stealth Armor.[2][6]

Capellan 'Mech during the Jihad.


The CCAF has practiced combined-arms warfare throughout its existence, to varying degrees and results, with the BattleMech taking a preeminent place on the battlefield. Traditionally, each 'Mech regiment will include an independent command company and be assigned numerous supporting units which answer to the regiment's commanding officer. On average this will include two flights of aerospace fighters, at least a battalion of armor, and between a company to a full regiment of infantry.[7]

However, the armed forces have also historically suffered from a lack of initiative, especially during times when to show initiative might be construed as being antigovernment, and a need for commanders to prove their political reliability with success on the battlefield.[2][8] Many officers would defer to their superiors, who themselves would be reluctant to utilize the proper forces for a battle whose outcome was uncertain, out of fear for their lives.[9] Indeed, during the latter part of the Succession Wars, many officers became paralyzed when cut off from central command, leaving it to mercenary units to take charge.[10] Others, when faced with a situation where even victory could lead to court martial and execution, suffered what became known as "Hopeless Battle Syndrome": better to die right now in a heroic last stand than live with the uncertainty of suffering a worse fate afterwards. Although the Xin Sheng movement did much to reverse this trend, the CMC has continued to monitor CCAF officers for signs of the syndrome.[9]

Capellan 'Mech.

Prior to the Succession Wars, the CCAF had adopted the "buffer zone" defense policy of the old Tikonov Union, occupying all border worlds in depth in order to defend its member states, and relied heavily on large concentrations of artillery on the defensive. Unfortunately the losses suffered during the first two Succession Wars made this policy untenable and, especially during the Second Succession War, highly trained Davion units with superior mobility proved capable of outmaneuvering and destroying these specialized artillery formations.[11][12] By the start of the Third Succession War, artillery units were instead being doled out in "penny-packets" to support individual formations, and Chancellor Otto Liao had adopted the controversial Elastic Defense, relying on mobile strategic reserves to respond to any incursions rather than trying to hold the enemy at the border.[11][13] Arguably this change in strategy helped saved the Confederation, but at a huge cost to the armed forces: during Tormax Liao's reign, not a single front-line regiment was more than 70% of its official strength.[14]

Due to changes made by Chancellors Sun-Tzu Liao and his son Daoshen Liao, the CCAF is not what it used to be. Since the CCAF has continued their use of augmented regiment structures since 3081, every regiment is now a flexible combined arms unit. CCAF tactical doctrine has been honed to a fine edge by decades of low-intensity warfare. The average Capellan janshi has been seasoned by regular combat deployments which are separated by rotations to comfortable garrison assignments, resulting in men and women who are both experienced and well-motivated.[15]


For many reasons House Liao has relied on medium and lightweight heavy 'Mechs which could perform multiple roles, putting it at a disadvantage against units using heavier or more specialized 'Mechs.[16] During the latter part of the Succession Wars, as the number of 'Mechs and sources of replenishment dwindled, it became standing orders for 'Mech units to be withdrawn from losing battles, often at the expense of conventional forces.[17] After Sun-Tzu Liao came to power the military began to address some of these deficiencies and expanded its inventory, including an increase use in 'Mechs from the Free Worlds League and Word of Blake.[16]

The Capellan Air Defense Force had relied on older fighter-craft such as the Eagle and Thunderbird during the early Succession Wars, although by the Third Succession War these outdated models had proved themselves overmatched by more recent designs like the Sparrowhawk. Thereafter they were relegated to interior defense in favor of newer, native-built designs such as the Transit and Transgressor. Armor units as well favor Capellan-built vehicles, including the Po, Zhukov and Regulator, but are not above seeking out foreign-built models such as the Blizzard. Indeed throughout its history the Capellan Armored Corps was arguably the best-trained and equipped of any conventional Inner Sphere force, not least because they were more often forced to fight enemy 'Mechs.[18]

Capellan soldiers.

Recently the Capellan Confederation has undergone a massive arms buildup under Daoshen. Its secret stockpiles of BattleMechs and continued war production far outstripped the assessments done by foreign intelligence agencies. House Liao secretly mass produced weapons of war at pre-Jihad rates and funneled vehicles, ammunition, and spare parts to dummy militia units and hidden depots. They also continued being major customers of the arms merchants of Clan Sea Fox and the Free Worlds. It's likely the best equipped combat force in the Inner Sphere, outside of the Clans.[19]


Several divisions exist among CCAF units. The first are the line regiments, regular forces who generally receive the best training and equipment available. Among these units is a further division between front-line forces and reserve forces. The former, including storied units like the Capellan Hussars, spearhead assaults and garrison critical worlds of the Confederation. Reserve units take on a more defensive role and tend to be staffed with greener recruits, but are no less potent a fighting force.[20][21]

Home Guard regiments serve as a national militia force, operating within their assigned commonality to defend worlds under attack and hinder the enemy's advance until reinforcements can arrive. Each is composed of three battalions plus support units, typically using combat vehicles although the usage of 'Mechs became prevalent in the thirty-first century. They are generally garrisoned on major worlds but can relocate quickly to any endangered planet within their area of operations.[22][21]

Each planet also maintains their own militia, drawn from the local population and used solely for its defense. The size and equipment of a planet's militia depends very much on how wealthy it is and how much its noble is willing to spend on defending it. At one end a particularly poor world will have just a single understrength regiment of two battalions, foot infantry equipped with small arms and heavy support weapons. At the other end, a prosperous and important world like Capella will have dozens upon dozens of militia regiments, some even equipped with 'Mechs. Historically these militia units were separate from the CCAF command structure, but as part of the Xin Sheng reforms they have since come under the control of the Home Guard.[21][23]

Finally, the CCAF has made prodigious use of mercenary troops, categorizing them one of two ways. Chartered mercenaries pledge to serve House Liao for specific lengths of time and under direct military control in exchange for better pay and special access to CCAF military stores. Unchartered mercenaries sign with local governments instead, and while not receiving the same state support they have greater freedom to contract their services. Notably loyal mercenary units like McCarron's Armored Cavalry have been rewarded with their continued service to the state by being made full units of the CCAF and given citizenship in the Confederation.[22][21]

Beset on all sides, soldiers of the CCAF fight on.

Deployment Status[edit]

In 2750 the CCAF had a strength of 42 BattleMech regiments and 30 WarShips. By 2765 they were well equipped with 92 'Mech regiments, and a naval fleet of 37 vessels.[24] At the start of the Succession Wars the CCAF had nearly doubled with a standing force of 192 front-line 'Mech regiments.[16] That number had drastically decreased down to 45 regiments by the end of the Third Succession War though,[25] and after the end of the Fourth the CCAF could muster just 30 'Mech regiments.[26] By 3062 the CCAF had managed to rebuild some of its lost strength and could muster the equivalent of 45 'Mech regiments.[27]

Via the Hidden Lion initiative, frontline combat brigades that had not been seen since the Succession Wars have been resurrected. Nearly every existing formation in the CCAF has been expanded. Troops that have been assigned to the CCAF's newest regiments are first assigned to Home Guard regiments deep within the Capellan Confederation. Where they are often assigned advanced BattleMechs which have been registered as "training equipment" and kept at remote bases. Many of these Home Guard regiments continue to operate a few obsolete Jihad-era BattleMechs for infantry support. The few exercises that they were observed doing were with the older BattleMechs therefore they didn't raise any suspicion. Which allowed the CCAF to continue to sharpen the skills of a large pool of potential frontline MechWarriors.[28]

Active Units

(As of 3067)[29]

Capellan Hussars
Capellan Hussars -Brigade logo 3079.png The elite of the CCAF, the Capellan Hussars are the oldest and most prestigious brigade in the armed forces. Traditionally, the Red Lancers serve as the Chancellor's bodyguard, while the Holdfast Guard and Prefectorate Guard serve similar functions for the Protectorate and House of Scions.
McCarron's Armored Cavalry
McCarrons Armored Cavalry logo 3076.png McCarron's Armored Cavalry is a celebrated mercenary brigade with centuries of loyal service to House Liao. As a reward, the Big MAC was formally adopted into the CCAF and its members given full Capellan citizenship by Chancellor Sun-Tzu Liao.
St. Ives Armored Cavalry
St Ives Amored Cavalry -Brigade logo.png The St. Ives Armored Cavalry brigade was the elite unit of the St. Ives Commonality before it joined with the breakaway St. Ives Compact during the Fourth Succession War. The unit was later reintegrated into the CCAF after the Capellan-St. Ives War, and although their loyalty was suspect the Cavalrymen have proven themselves to be one of the best CCAF brigades.
Capellan Brigade
Capellan Brigade logo 3079.png The Capellan Brigade was created in 3061 out of mercenary units deserving of being adopted by the CCAF, although they were not given formal citizenship like the Big MAC. Notable for their looser standards of discipline.
St. Ives Sentinels
St Ives Sentinels -Brigade logo.png The St. Ives Sentinels have their origin in CCAF regiments who agreed to become mercenaries for the St. Ives Compact during its brief independence. When the Compact was reintegrated into the Confederation, so too were the Sentinels, becoming reserve units for the St. Ives Commonality.
St. Ives Janissaries
Capellan Confederation logo.png The St. Ives Janissaries were adopted by the CCAF after the reintegration of the St. Ives Compact. Created during the Compact's independence, their units practice a unique form of combined-arms warfare.
Victoria Commonality Rangers
Victoria Commonality Rangers logo 3079.png Created to protect the recently formed Victoria Commonality, the Victoria Commonality Rangers has its origins in former units of the Chesterton Reserves.
Confederation Reserve Cavalry
Confederation Reserve Cavalry logo 3079.png A reserve brigade originally charged with defending the Sian Commonality, the Confederation Reserve Cavalry's role is expanded to the entire Confederation after the numerous losses during the Fourth Succession War.
Capellan Defense Force
Capellan Defense Force logo 3079.png Originally the Capellan Reserves, the Capellan Defense Force was re-formed after the losses of the Fourth Succession War placed the Capellan Commonality on the front lines.
Liao Cháng-Chéng
Liao Cháng-Chéng logo 3079.png The Liao Cháng-Chéng reserve brigade was created to defend the expanding Liao Commonality along the borders of the Chaos March.
Citizens' Honored
Citizens Honored logo 3079.png The Citizens' Honored brigade are former mercenaries, such as the Fourth Tau Ceti Rangers, who were adopted into the CCAF in a manner similar to the MAC.
Former Units
Andurien Hussars
Andurien Hussars -Brigade logo.png The Andurien Hussars were established after the Third Andurien War as the Commonality brigade for the Andurien Commonality.[30] The Andurien Hussars were destroyed during the Succession Wars.
Blackwind Lancers
Free Capella Movement.jpg The Blackwind Lancers were an independent regiment charged with defending and raiding across the Davion border. They defected along with the St. Ives Compact, but rather than reintegrate after the Capellan-St. Ives war they joined the Free Capella anti-Confederation movement.
Capellan Chargers
Capellan Chargers -Brigade logo.png The Capellan Chargers were originally a Capellan Hegemony Armed Forces brigade and were dedicated to the ideals of the Hegemony. The Chargers were one of the first Capellan commands to receive BattleMechs, and were destroyed during the First Succession War.[31]
Chesterton Reserves
Chesterton Regulars -Brigade logo.png One of the reserve brigades charged with protecting the Chesterton Commonality, the Chesterton Reserves were largely destroyed by the Fourth Succession War. The few surviving units were eventually rolled into the Victoria Commonality Rangers.
Liao Guards
Liao Guards -Brigade logo.png The Liao Guards were the original military forces of the Republic of Liao prior to the formation of the Capellan Confederation. The Liao Guards had been destroyed by the end of the Third Succession War.[32]
Liao Lancers
Liao Lancers -Brigade logo.png The Liao Lancers were raised in the mid-twenty-sixth century to replace the defunct Sarna Sabers brigade as the brigade associated with the Sarna Commonality. The Liao Lancers had been destroyed by the end of the Third Succession War.[33]
Liao Reserves
Ccafliaoreserves.png The Liao Reserves were one of the reserve brigades charged with protecting the Liao Commonality. It was wiped out during the Fourth Succession War.
MacGregor's Armored Scouts
Ccafmacgregorsarmoredscouts.png MacGregor's Armored Scouts was an independent regiment stationed along the Tikonov Commonality's borders. It was destroyed in the Fourth Succession War.
McCrimmon's Light Cavalry
Ccafmccrimmsonslightcavalry.png McCrimmon's Light Cavalry was an independent regiment stationed along the Tikonov Commonality's borders. It was destroyed in the Fourth Succession War.
Northwind Highlanders
NorthwindHighlanders.gif Formerly an elite force of the CCAF, the Northwind Highlanders notably betrayed the Confederation during the Fourth Succession War when Hanse Davion promised them their ancestral home Northwind in exchange for their services.
Sarna Reserves
Ccafsarnareserve.png The Sarna Reserves were a reserve brigade protecting the Sarna Commonality until its absorption during the Fourth Succession Wars. Survivors were later transferred to the Liao Cháng-Chéng brigade.
Sarna Sabers
The Sarna Sabers were the regional brigade associated with the Sarna Commonality during the Age of War until the destruction of the last regiment in 2529. Renowned for their savagery but disliked by the Strategios, the Sarna Sabers brigade was disbanded and replaced by the Liao Lancers brigade.[33]
Sian Dragoons
Sian Dragoons -Brigade logo.png The Sian Dragoons were the largest brigade within the CCAF during the Age of War and the late Star League era. The Sian Dragoons had been destroyed by the end of the Third Succession War.[34]
Sian Reserves
Ccafsianreservs.png The Sian Reserves were a reserve brigade which protected the Sian Commonality. It was eventually disbanded and its units transferred to the Sarna Reserves.
Tikonov Lancers
Tikonov Lancers -Brigade logo.png The Tikonov Lancers had a heritage going back to the early years of the Tikonov Union and were the regional brigade associated with the Tikonov Commonality until their destruction during the Succession Wars.[35]
Tikonov Reserves
Ccaftikonovreserves.png The Tikonov Reserves were a reserve brigade charged with protecting the Tikonov Commonality. Its units were later transferred to the Periphery Guard before eventually being absorbed into the Liao Cháng-Chéng.






Military Academies[edit]

Capellan Confederation Military Academies
Duchy RTC

Every Duchy provides at least one training facility that allows for common citizens to serve in the Confederation's armed forces.

Capella-WC.png Capella War College

The Capella War College is the most prestigious of all the academies in the Capellan Confederation. The War College is the source of many of the most important leaders of the CCAF. Historically, the Capellan Hussars have been given "first pick" among graduates.

Liao Conservatory of Military Arts logo.png Liao Conservatory of Military Arts

The Liao Conservatory of Military Arts was formed in 3058 in part to ameliorate the gap caused by the loss of several academies during the Fourth Succession War. It is famous for its heavy influence on meditation and intellectual pursuits.

Sarna-MA.png Sarna Martial Academy

The Sarna Martial Academy (SMA) was an important part of the Capellan Confederation's training program. During the Fourth Succession War, the world of Sarna was conquered by the Federated Suns and was briefly integrated into the Armed Forces of the Federated Commonwealth. After the collapse of authority in the Sarna March and the reemergence of the Sarna Supremacy, the academy opened its doors to all and became known as an independent school for mercenaries. After its reintegration into the Confederation the academy still remained independent for a time and was considered the least prestigious of the major Capellan military academies.

Sian-CMD.png Sian Center for Martial Disciplines

Sian Center for Martial Disciplines (SCMD) cadets must be outwardly perfect and maintain philosophically correct views when training on the capital world of the Confederation. All cadets are very closely scrutinized by some of the best instructors in the CCAF, and recruiters for the Warrior Houses and Death Commandos are common sights on-campus.

Sian University.jpg Sian University

The prestigious Sian University offers an Officer Cadet Program known as Hen gao Xiao-lu or the High Path. The program frequently takes applicants from the SCMD and other academies from across the Confederation.

St Ives Academy of Martial Sciences logo.png St. Ives Academy of Martial Sciences

SIAMS was the principal academy for the St. Ives Compact during that nation's brief life. Attached to the St. Ives Institute of Science, SIAMS has its own officer training program. Following its reintegration into the Confederation, SIAMS once more began political indoctrination classes.

Victoria Academy of Arms and Technology logo.png Victoria Academy of Arms and Technology

The Victoria Academy is the newest military academy, and thanks to its location next to a refurbished Star League factory trains more technicians than cadets. Also used to help train the Confederation's Trinity Alliance allies.


During the Age of War, CCAF generals attempted to engineer a coup. In retaliation after the coup was put down, the incumbent Chancellor (House Weng-Liao) removed all officer ranks above Colonel, instituting instead the title "Senior-Colonel" as the rough equivalent of a general officer.[41] During the Xin Sheng reorganization, Sun-Tzu Liao reinstituted the ranks, denoting the two military commanders of each commonality and the CCAF fleet commander.

Immediately prior to the invasion of the St. Ives Compact, the Chancellor reformed and streamlined the rank system of the Capellan military to try and reduce confusion and to further remind and enhance the renewal of the Capellan Chinese culture.

Old Rank New Rank Insignia
Commissioned Officers
Chancellor Unchanged N/A
Sang-jiang-jun (Senior General) Brass triangle with green center
Senior Colonel Jiang-jun (General) Brass triangle with open center
Colonel Sang-shao (Colonel) Silver triangle with open center
Major Zhong-shao (Lieutenant Colonel) Brass bar with three silver pips
Captain Sao-shao (Major) Brass bar with two silver pips
Commander Sang-wei (Captain) Brass bar with one silver pip
Subcommander Sao-wei (Lieutenant) Brass bar
Enlisted Ranks
Force Leader Yi-si-ben-bing (Master Sergeant) Brass bar with two green diagonal stripes
Lance Sergeant Si-ben-bing (Sergeant) Brass bar with one wide green diagonal stripe in center
Lance Corporal San-ben-bing (Corporal) Green bar with two diagonal brass stripes cutting along the corners
Recruit Shia-ben-bing (Recruit) Green bar

See Also[edit]


  1. Field Manual: 3145, p. 27
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 House Liao (The Capellan Confederation), pp. 67–68
  3. 3.0 3.1 Field Manual: Capellan Confederation, p. 24
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Handbook: House Liao, p. 101
  5. 5.0 5.1 Field Manual: Capellan Confederation, p. 25
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 Handbook: House Liao, p. 102
  7. Field Manual: Capellan Confederation, p. 36
  8. House Liao (The Capellan Confederation), p. 5
  9. 9.0 9.1 Field Manual: Capellan Confederation, p. 31
  10. House Liao (The Capellan Confederation), p. 50
  11. 11.0 11.1 House Liao (The Capellan Confederation), p. 48
  12. Handbook: House Liao, p. 30
  13. Handbook: House Liao, p. 33
  14. Handbook: House Liao, pp. 34–35
  15. Field Manual: 3145, p. 27
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 Field Manual: Capellan Confederation, p. 32
  17. Handbook: House Liao, p. 43
  18. Field Manual: Capellan Confederation, pp. 32–34
  19. Field Manual: 3145, pp. 27–28
  20. Field Manual: Capellan Confederation, p. 28
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 Handbook: House Liao, p. 107
  22. 22.0 22.1 House Liao (The Capellan Confederation), p. 67
  23. House Liao (The Capellan Confederation), p. 72
  24. Historical: Liberation of Terra Volume 1, p. 49: "Member State Troop Strength"
  25. House Liao (The Capellan Confederation), p. 5
  26. 20 Year Update, p. 62
  27. Field Manual: Capellan Confederation, p. 23
  28. Field Manual: 3145, pp. 27
  29. Handbook: House Liao, pp. 103–104
  30. Field Report 2765: CCAF, p. 8: "Andurien Hussars"
  31. Field Report 2765: CCAF, p. 9: "Capellan Chargers"
  32. Field Report 2765: CCAF, p. 11: "Liao Guards"
  33. 33.0 33.1 Field Report 2765: CCAF, p. 12: "Liao Lancers"
  34. Field Report 2765: CCAF, p. 13: "Sian Dragoons"
  35. Field Report 2765: CCAF, p. 15: "Tikonov Lancers"
  36. 36.0 36.1 36.2 36.3 36.4 36.5 36.6 36.7 36.8 36.9 Field Report 2765: CCAF, pp. 7–16
  37. House Liao (The Capellan Confederation), pp. 76–94
  38. 38.00 38.01 38.02 38.03 38.04 38.05 38.06 38.07 38.08 38.09 38.10 38.11 Field Report: CCAF, pp. 8–19
  39. 39.00 39.01 39.02 39.03 39.04 39.05 39.06 39.07 39.08 39.09 39.10 39.11 Field Manual: 3085, pp. 23–32
  40. 40.00 40.01 40.02 40.03 40.04 40.05 40.06 40.07 40.08 40.09 40.10 40.11 40.12 40.13 40.14 Field Manual: 3145, pp. 30–43
  41. House Liao (The Capellan Confederation), p. 34