Note: X and Y are coordinates (light years on XY plane) relative to Terra at (0, 0)
Cynthiana nearby systems (3151)
|X:Y Coordinates||34.29 : -68.578[e]|
|Recharge time||196 hours|
Originally known as the Cynthiana system, the Liao system was home to at least one habitable world, Liao III, and as at 3145 was located in the Tikonov Commonality of the Capellan Confederation.
- 1 Liao
- 1.1 System Description
- 1.2 System History
- 1.3 Political Affiliation
- 1.4 Liao III
- 1.4.1 Planetary History
- 1.4.2 Planetary Rulers
- 1.4.3 Military Deployment
- 1.4.4 Geography
- 1.4.5 Planetary Locations
- 1.5 Nearby Systems
- 1.6 References
- 1.7 Bibliography
The Liao system is located near the Aldebaran and Genoa systems and consists of a class K5V primary orbited by at nine planets. During the thirty-first century a recharge station was in place at the nadir jump point.
The Liao system was settled in 2189 by Elias Liao and his followers and became the capital of a number of minor states prior to the formation of the Capellan Confederation in the mid-twenty-fourth century.
- 2189 - Terran Alliance 
- 2202 - Terran Alliance 
- 2240 - Independent world (under Victor Liao)
- 2240 - Liao Republic (under Irenna Liao)
- 2315 - Duchy of Liao 
- 2366 - Duchy of Liao 
- 2367 - Capellan Confederation 
- 2571 - Capellan Confederation 
- 2596 - Capellan Confederation 
- 2750 - Capellan Confederation 
- 2765 - Capellan Confederation 
- 2786 - Capellan Confederation 
- 2822 - Capellan Confederation 
- 2864 - Capellan Confederation 
- 3025 - Capellan Confederation 
- 3030 - Federated Suns 
- 3040 - Federated Commonwealth 
- 3057 - Chaos March 
- 3058 - Chaos March 
- 3067 - Capellan Confederation 
- 3079 - Capellan Confederation 
- 3085 - Republic of the Sphere 
- 3130 - Republic of the Sphere 
- 3135 - Capellan Confederation 
- 3145 - Capellan Confederation 
| Jump point
|Moons||1 (Elias' Promise)|
|Atmospheric pressure||Standard (Breathable)|
|Highest native life||Reptile (10%)|
|Ruler|| President Elias Liao (2189)|
President Victor Liao (2202-2240)
President Irenna Liao (2240)
President Martell Liao (2269)
President Emile Falkner Liao (2308)
President Franco Liao (2356)
Lord August Liao (3025)
Shonso Hurtong Liao (3067)
Anna Lu Pohl, Governor (3130)
Viktor Ruskoff, Legate (3130)
|Population|| 3,485,000,000 (3025)|
3,800,000,000 (3067)ref name=HBHL74/>
|Socio-Industrial Levels||B-C-C-D-A (3067)ref name=HBHL74/>|
|HPG (Representative)|| A|
Precentor Elizabeth Waite (3025)
Liao III - more commonly known simply as Liao - has one moon named Emile's Promise and has at various points served as a national capital, a Prefecture capital and a Commonality capital.
Originally an unsettled, backwater planet in the Aldebaran system, the planet was settled by Elias Liao and his followers in 2189. First named for Elias' wife Cynthiana, the planet was renamed to honor Elias after his death in 2202, although Elias' son David Paul initially opposed the change.
When it was first settled, Liao was an unremarkable planet with wide expanses of grassland and little else. Within the first month, four colonists committed suicide because of the monotony. Elias Liao turned things around and Liao quickly became a major producer of livestock for the local star systems such as Zion, Zurich and Genoa.
Having established that the biology of Cynthiana could support a number of species from off-planet, Elias aggressively imported a number of plant and animal species; the pride of his efforts was the importing of a number of breeding pairs of Eridani stallions, which he bred up during his lifetime into sought-after sport lines. The inhabitants of Cynthiana had invested the last of their money into Elias' experiment with breeding up livestock species. Although the Cynthiana colonists learned to domesticate the native Liao buffalo quickly, a deadly species known as the Liao cougar proved a major problem, inflicting heavy losses on the colonists' herds; the result was a massive hunting program that had completely eradicated the Liao cougar by the early 24th century.
Elias Liao founded the Liao Republic when he colonized Liao, and his grandson Victor would become president in 2202 and governor of the world under the Terran Alliance. By 2212, Victor had formal diplomatic relationships with a number of neighboring systems, to the advantage of all involved; while Victor refused to deal in Terran currency, he instead promoted trade by barter or exchange. It was very common for him to trade livestock and meat from Liao for goods from other worlds and for tracts of land on other, less well developed, colonies. Victor would then sell that land on to newly arriving colonists in exchange for more things to increase the power and prestige of Liao and his nascent kingdom; technology, ships, and most of all, weapons.
When a number of colonies declared independence in 2236, the Terran Alliance demanded that Alliance worlds raise troops to support a campaign to conquer those worlds that had risen up in rebellion; Victor Liao's response was particularly pointed - he had the Terran Ambassador beheaded, and the head returned to Terra by first-class courier. The inhabitants of Liao waited for a response from Terra, but none ever came; after more than twenty years of preparation and buildup, Liao was suddenly independent when the Alliance issued the Demarcation Declaration and withdrew its borders to include only systems a single jump from Terra.
Independent Republic of Liao
After the death of Victor Liao in 2240, his daughter Irenna became the new President, promptly declaring Liao to be a sovereign nation - the Liao Republic - and starting major reforms of the planetary constitution. Various reforms set in place by Irenna strengthened her own position and allowed for the creation of a feudal dynasty, while at the same time moving Liao from being an independent agricultural backwater into a far more efficient and important polity.
As the colony worlds became increasingly balkanized and nations began to form in reaction to the Demarcation Declaration sporadic local wars began to break out, increasing in frequency as the vagaries of interstellar economies generated runaway inflation and planetary shortages. Liao suffered alongside other worlds during this period, being blockaded in 2249 - a blockade that disrupted their trade and dramatically reducing the standard of living on the world. These problems intensified under the rule of Martell Liao, who compared unfavorably to his mother, Irenna.
Liao remained the center of a single-world nation until it re-emerged onto the interstellar stage during the closing years of the war between the Capellan Hegemony and the Sarna Supremacy. The nearby world of Arboris - a Protectorate of the Capellan Hegemony as well as the most coreward planets in the Hegemony - announced its' intention to secede from the Hegemony in 2308, unwilling to continue to contribute to the increasingly heavy burden of the war. Unbeknownst to the Hegemony, Arboris had applied for Protectorate status under the neutrality laws of the Liao Republic, which the ruler of the Republic, Emile Falkner Liao, had granted. Emile had assembled a flotilla of hastily armed merchant vessels to defend the new Protectorate, and the Hegemony fleet sent to subdue Arboris ran straight into the Liao fleet. Emile goaded the Hegemony fleet into an ambush and mauled the fleet badly; while he was forced to retreat to Liao, he did so in good order, and the most the Free Worlds League forces could do in response was to impose a blockade on Liao until April 2309.
The Hegemony's pyrrhic victory cost them the support of the Free Worlds League in the war with the Supremacy, which allowed the nearby Tikonov Grand Union to impose an arbitrated peace. By 2310, Liao was no longer besieged, and had gained Arboris as a Protectorate. This was the beginning of a rapid expansion of influence in the region for Liao and its ruler.
Duchy of Liao
Between 2310 and 2320 the worlds of Zurich, Aldebaran, Gan Singh and Genoa all applied to Emile Liao for Protectorate status on the same level as that enjoyed by Arboris; Liao's influence grew to the point that in 2315, it became the capital of Emile's new interstellar nation - the Duchy of Liao, a realm that would survive intact until the formation of the Capellan Confederation.
The Early Succession Wars
Liao suffered a number of spoiling raids, which reduced the planet to a backwater world with no significant infrastructure worth attacking. The planet remained important to House Liao, due to its historical importance to House Liao's ruling party. The world aside from harboring a palace on world for Chancellors, served as a training ground for Liao forces.
The Fourth Succession War
In August 3028, House Davion forces led by the Thirty-third Avalon Hussars launched the invasion of Liao in a surprise attack in First Wave of the Fourth Succession War. The Hussars’ lead task force consisted of all three regiments of the Blue Star Irregulars and successfully made planetfall without meeting resistance from the Liao defenders. The first regiment of the Irregulars, the 1894th Light Horse, landed in southern continent where it easily overwhelmed and destroyed the understrength BattleMech regiment, Vincent's Commandos.
The rest of the Davion forces made landfall in Liao's northern continent and made a push towards the Forbidden City. In a mountain region, the First Confederation Reserve Cavalry and the Warrior House LuSann made push an attempt to stop Davion mercenaries from making a push to the capital. In the following week after invasion force’s landing, the Cavalry would make its move against the Irregulars' third regiment, the Twenty-first Rim Worlds. The Irregular regiment engaged the Cavalry in hope to prevent the Capellan forces from linking up with its Warrior House compatriots. The Irregulars nearly completely destroyed the Cavalry until Prefectorate Guards sprung their ambush. The Irregulars undertook a fighting withdraw from the ambush at the cost of their commanding general dying fighting a lance of Griffins. In another part of the battle, the LuSann would be devastated by the Avatars of Painful Death's infantry, armor and Aerospace assets, losing a battalion worth of 'Mechs in the fighting.
House Davion forces progress towards the capital would end up being stalled by the Liao's defenders’ efforts. It would not be until the arrival of Redfield's Renegades that the stalemate would turn into AFFS victory. The Renegades dropped behind LuSann's battlefield lines and entered the Forbidden City with no resistance. With the fall of the Forbidden City to Davion mercenaries, the remains of the Capellan forces withdrew from the planet.
Return to House Liao control
During Operation GUERRERO in 3057, Chancellor Sun Tzu Liao assigned the liberation of Liao to all of the Confederation's Warrior Houses. The planet's defending militia, the Liao Sarna March Militia surrendered to these forces without a shot fired. The Chancellor made Liao the capital of the newly formed Liao Commonality, with his cousin Shonso Hurtong Liao as its governor by 3061. Earlier, as part of reestablishing control of the world, the Liao Conservatory of Military Arts would be established in 3059. Liao experienced an economic and cultural renaissance as a result of its designation as the prefecture capital. Hurtong Liao worked hard to reestablish the Confederation's rule over the world, trying to bring its citizens who experienced a higher standard of living during FedCom's rule under control. 
Liao was attacked by the Word of Blake on the 2nd of November 3069, but local Capellan Confederation Armed Forces troops were able to repel the attack. The Capellan forces on Liao were mysteriously well-prepared for the invasion, and when the Blakists invaded the CCAF struck first, hitting the invaders with massed artillery fire and chemical weapons. The Word of Blake forces were unable to capture Liao, but the planet paid a heavy price for the aggressive tactics of the defending forces - the island continent of Anderia was rendered uninhabitable, and the population of the planet suffered horrible casualties.
Incorporated into the Republic of the Sphere following the end of the Jihad, Liao remained a coveted target for the Confederation. Liao was one of the former Capellan worlds within the Republic that was embroiled in a grass-roots war that began in 3101 and which was intended to return the planet to Capellan control. In 3111 Capellan forces were able to land on Liao after a junior lieutenant stationed on the world was bribed to allow an unauthorized DropShip landing on the planet, only for the infiltrating forces to launch an attack that slaughtered Republican civilians, including the family of the officer who had assisted them in landing in the first place. The war ended soon after and Liao remained a member of the Republic.
In 3126 and 3127 Capellan agitators increased tensions at the Liao Conservatory of Military Arts. These tensions burst in 3128, when the campus was seized by disgruntled cadets. Legate Kang Lo Den responded violently, and two students died. Paladin Ezekiel Crow prevented a full assault against the protesters and pressured Legate Kang to resign. Things calmed down again, but a new insurgent group called Ijori Dè Guāng was formed. On the 25th of July 3132 the HPG station on Liao underwent a mysterious shutdown that lasted four days, and may have been a herald of Gray Monday.
After the Blackout the Capellan Confederation sent troops into the Republic. The Second McCarron's Armored Cavalry regiment landed on Liao and faced the garrisoning troops. After six years of terrorist assaults by the Ijori Dè Guāng the garrison forces were on edge, and peaceful protests quickly exploded into violence. The Liao Standing Guard and V Principes faced multiple hit and run attacks from the Armored Cavalry across two continents while the protesters and Ijori Dè Guāng joined forces with dissident elements of the Liao Conservatory of Military Arts to cause more problems. Despite this, five weeks of fighting had slowed the Capellan forces. Then the Dynasty Guard arrived. They joined with the dissident forces and opened a new front against the Republic troops. The Republic forces might still have won, but one of their aerospace fighters shot down a medical transport DropShip filled with refugees thinking it was transporting CCAF reinforcements. Overnight all loyalty to the Republic disappeared and the citizens of Liao rioted against the Republic troops. A last minute attack against the Dynasty Guard failed, and the Republic forces surrendered. They were allowed to leave Liao, returning the system to the Confederation.
- First Liao Guards
- Liao Sarna March Militia 
- Liao Sarna March Militia
- Dynasty Guard
- - At this point in time the Dynasty Guard is operating at 65% of full strength, with 100% of their equipment featuring upgraded technology.
- - The 1st is operating at 35% of full strength, with 95% of their equipment featuring upgraded technology.
- - At this point in time, the V Hastati was at 70% of full strength, with 87% of their equipment featuring upgraded technology.
- - At this point in time, the unit was at 95% of full strength with a "A" equipment rating.
- - At this point in time, the unit was at 90% of full strength with a "D" equipment rating.
The planet Liao has three continents which settlers named Northern, Southern and Anderia. Anderia is an island continent, and all three continents are dominated by wide stretches of open grassland; some of the grasslands stretch across the entire of a continent. The continent of Anderia was rendered uninhabitable during the Jihad as a consequence of the use of chemical weapons. At some point the Northern and Southern continents were renamed to Beilù and Nánlù. Various prominent mountain chains exist on Liao; Anderia is home to the Langtang Mountains, while Beilù is home to the Highwall Mountains, Northern Ranges and Du-Jin Mountains. The vast grasslands of the Southern Plains and the Great Northern Plains dominate the two major landmasses, although the Chengdu Plateau is a major geographical feature, seperated from the rest of Beilù by the Highwall Mountains. Major seas and oceans on Liao include the Northern Sea, the Cyntheryen sea and the Eastern Ocean.
- Dark Age: Republic Worlds (3130), p. 108 - "Liao"
- Handbook: House Liao, p. 74, "Planet Profile"
- Handbook: House Liao, p. 11, "Elias Liao"
- Era Report: 3145, p. 39, "Inner Sphere Map - "
- Field Manual: 3145, p. VI, "Inner Sphere - 3145"
- Handbook: House Liao, p. 17, "Capellan Confederation Founding, 2366"
- House Liao (The Capellan Confederation), p. 9, "Changing Times"
- House Liao (The Capellan Confederation), p. 10-11, "Queen Of Hearts"
- House Liao (The Capellan Confederation), p. 17, "Loosening Up"
- Handbook: House Liao, p. 13, "Timeline: Capellan Zone 2367"
- Handbook: House Liao, p. 25, "Capellan Confederation after Age of War "
- Historical: Reunification War, p. 159, "Inner Sphere - 2596"
- Era Report: 2750, p. 37, "Inner Sphere - 2750"
- Historical: Liberation of Terra Volume 1, p. 11, "Inner Sphere - 2765"
- First Succession War (Source Book), p. 25, "Inner Sphere -  Map"
- Handbook: House Liao, p. 31, "Capellan Confederation after First Succession War "
- Historical: Liberation of Terra Volume 2, p. 122-123, "Inner Sphere - 2822"
- First Succession War (Source Book), p. 113, "Inner Sphere -  Map"
- Handbook: House Liao, p. 39, "Capellan Confederation after Second Succession War "
- Handbook: House Liao, p. 40, "Capellan Confederation after Third Succession War "
- Handbook: House Liao, p. 49, "Capellan Confederation after Fourth Succession War "
- Historical: War of 3039, p. 133, "Inner Sphere - 3040"
- Handbook: House Liao, p. 60, "Capellan Confederation after Operation Guerrero "
- Field Manual: Updates, p. 33, "Capellan Confederation Deployment Table"
- Handbook: House Liao, p. 68, "Capellan Confederation after FedCom Civil War "
- Field Report: CCAF, p. 21, "Capellan Confederation Armed Forces Deployment Map - August 3079"
- Map of the Inner Sphere 3130
- Era Report: 3145, p. 11, "Inner Sphere Map - "
- Handbook: House Liao, p. 12, "Timeline: Capellan Zone"
- House Liao (The Capellan Confederation), p. 9, "An Audience With The Governor"
- House Liao (The Capellan Confederation), p. 11, "Bitter Times"
- House Liao (The Capellan Confederation), p. 163, "The Capellan Confederation's Line of Succession and Partial Liao Family Tree"
- House Liao (The Capellan Confederation), p. 16-17, "Arboris Secedes"
- House Liao (The Capellan Confederation), p. 141 - "Planet Guide"
- Dark Age: Republic of the Sphere, p. 10 "Prefecture IV"
- Dark Age Turning Points: Liao, p. 5, "Liao"
- House Liao (The Capellan Confederation), p. 8, "A Green Despair"
- House Liao (The Capellan Confederation), p. 8, "New Beginnings"
- Handbook: House Liao, p. 12, "Cynthiana"
- House Liao (The Capellan Confederation), p. 10-11, "War Of Independence"
- House Liao (The Capellan Confederation), p. 10, "The Other Shoe"
- House Liao (The Capellan Confederation), p. 141 - Liao (planet) profile - Brief info on the planet as of 3025 in the original House Liao sourcebook.
- NAIS The Fourth Succession War Military Atlas Volume 1, p. 16-17 - House Davion's successful invasion and conquest of Liao during the 4th Succession War.
- Shattered Sphere, p. 68, "The Sarna Invasion"
- Shattered Sphere, p. 67 - Liao's Liberation by Capellan Forces and the surrender of the Liao Sarna March Militia.
- Handbook: House Liao, p. 74 - Planet Liao background as of 3067, background update from 3057 to '67.
- Jihad: Final Reckoning, p. 47, "The Jihad In Review"
- Dark Age Turning Points: Liao, p. 5
- Era Digest: Dark Age, p. 10, "Dark Age Timeline"
- Dark Age Turning Points: Liao, p. 6
- Handbook: House Liao, p. 12, "Timeline: Capellan Zone"
- Field Report 2765: Capellan Confederation, p. 11, "Regimental Status"
- Field Report 2765: Capellan Confederation, p. 12, "Regimental Status"
- First Succession War (Source Book), p. 136, "First Succession War Deployment Table - CCAF"
- House Liao (The Capellan Confederation, p. 105 - Unit assigned to Liao as of 3025.
- NAIS The Fourth Succession War Military Atlas Volume 1, p. 11-12, 16-17, 102 - Noted Liao garrison forces as of 3028 during the failed defense of Liao at dawn of 4th Succession War.
- Historical: War of 3039, p. 138 "Deployment Table"
- 20-Year Update, p. 24
- Objective Raids, p. 17, "Deployment Table - 3054"
- Field Report: CCAF, p. 8, "Capellan Hussars Regimental Status"
- Field Report: CCAF, p. 18, "St. Ives Armored Cavalry Regimental Status"
- Field Manual: 3085, p. 186, "RAF Deployment Table - 3085"
- Field Manual: 3145, p. 46, "Capellan Confederation Armed Forces Deployment Table - 3145"
- Field Manual: 3145, p. 47, "Capellan Confederation Armed Forces Deployment Table - 3145"
- Dark Age Turning Points: Liao, p. 30-33, "Map of Liao"
- Dark Age: Republic Worlds (3130)
- Dark Age Turning Points: Liao
- Era Digest: Dark Age
- Era Report: 2750
- Era Report: 3145
- Field Manual: 3085
- Field Manual: 3145
- Field Manual: Updates
- Field Report: CCAF
- Field Report 2765: Capellan Confederation
- First Succession War
- Handbook: House Liao
- Historical: Liberation of Terra Volume 1
- Historical: Liberation of Terra Volume 2
- Historical: Reunification War
- Historical: War of 3039
- House Liao (The Capellan Confederation)
- Jihad: Final Reckoning
- Map of the Inner Sphere 3130
- Objective Raids
- Shattered Sphere
- Dark Age: Republic of the Sphere